Current reviews in musculoskeletal medicine

2008 Dec; 1(3-4): 223-6.

Patel R, Appannagari A, Whang PG.

Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA


Coccydynia is a term that refers to pain in the region of the coccyx. Most cases are associated with abnormal mobility of the coccyx which may trigger a chronic inflammatory process leading to degeneration of this structure. In some patients this instability may be detected on dynamic radiographs. Nonsurgical management remains the gold standard treatment for coccydynia, consisting of decreased sitting, seat cushioning, coccygeal massage, stretching, manipulation, local injection of steroids or anesthetics, and postural adjustments. Those patients who fail these conservative modalities may potentially benefit from coccygectomy. However, surgical intervention is typically reserved for patients with evidence of advanced coccygeal instability (e.g., subluxation or hypermobility) or spicule formation, as this population appears to exhibit the greatest improvement postoperatively.

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